Pengertian Globalisasi (1)

Globalisasi sering diartikan sebagai interaksi antar manusia di muka bumi yang sudah semakin intensif karena kemajuan teknologi komunikasi. Globalisasi di satu sisi menimbulkan masalah tetapi juga memberikan banyak manfaat. Berikut definisi globalisasi:

globalization A central part of the rhetoric of contemporary world politics and the subject of increasing volumes of academic analysis. It resists any single or simple definition. Although often associated with claims that the present world system is undergoing transformation, it is an old idea. There is a long tradition of writers emphasizing the external economic constraints that act upon nation states and the transforming impact of global economic processes, with Marx being amongst the most powerful and prescient. Such themes were revived in the late 1960s and early 1970s when writers on interdependence and modernization argued that the rapid expansion of international trade and investment, the increased awareness of ecological interdependence, the declining utility of military power, and the increasing power of non-state actors ( multinational corporations but also religious organizations and terrorist groups) constituted a systemic shift that would increasingly undermine the traditional role and primacy of nation states. The 1970s literature on interdependence faded under pressure from two sources. First, the reappearance of superpower confrontation and the second Cold War appeared to justify those who took a more Hobbesian view of international life, dominated by military confrontation rather than economic exchange. Second, within academia, statists and realists responded vigorously, arguing, for example, that multinational corporations were closely tied to states and to patterns of interstate politics; that the state was still the most important institution of international order; that military power had not declined in its utility; and, most important of all, that the international political system with its dominant logic of power balancing remained the most important element of any theory of international politics.

However, with the end of the Cold War, academic interest shifted back to the role of external or global economic factors, this time under the broad banner of ‘globalization’. It is far from easy to gather together the wide variety of meanings attached to the term globalization. At one level it appears simple. Globalization is about the universal process or set of processes which generate a multiplicity of linkages and interconnections which transcend the states and societies which make up the modern world system. It involves a dramatic increase in the density and depth of economic, ecological, and societal interdependence, with ‘density’ referring to the increased number, range, and scope of cross-border transactions; and ‘depth’ to the degree to which that interdependence affects, and is affected by, the ways in which societies are organized domestically.

In reality, much of the muddle and inconclusiveness of the debates on globalization stem from the ambiguities of the concept. Globalization is sometimes presented as a causal theory: certain sorts of global processes are held to cause certain kinds of outcomes; sometimes it is a collection of concepts, mapping (but not explaining) how the changing global system is to be understood; and sometimes it is understood as a particular kind of discourse or ideology (often associated with neo-liberalism). There are also important distinctions between economistic readings of globalization (that stress increased interstate transactions and flows of capital, labour, goods and services) and social and political readings (that stress the emergence of new forms of governance and authority, new arenas of political action (‘deterritorialization’ or the ‘reconfiguration of social space’), or new understandings of identity or community). Within economistic readings, there are distinctions between a traditional focus on interstate economic transactions and broader shifts in transnational production-structures and the emergence of new kinds of deterritorialized markets. Distinctions are also drawn between globalization, internationalization, westernization, and modernization. And there is the important distinction between the claim that globalization should be seen as the continuation of a deep-rooted set of historical processes and the view that contemporary globalization represents a critical break-point or fundamental discontinuity in world politics.

Perhaps the most important single idea concerns the growing disjuncture between the notion of a sovereign state directing its own future, the dynamics of the contemporary global economy, and the increasing complexity of world society. More specifically, there are three broad categories of claim that globalization is having a deep, perhaps revolutionary, impact. In the first place, it is widely argued that certain sets of economic policy tools have ceased to be viable and that states face ever increasing pressures to adopt increasingly similar pro-market policies. Because of the increasing power of financial markets, governments are forced into pursuing macroeconomic policies that meet with the approval of these markets. Increasing trade also places governments under pressure to adopt pro-market policies, avoiding policies which would imply the need to harm business by taxation, or to raise interest rates as a consequence of increased borrowing. They also find themselves forced to cut back the role of the public economy in order to attract inward investment from increasingly footloose multinational companies quick to punish governments who stray from the path of economic righteousness by exercising their exit option. Consequently, the range of policy options open to governments is claimed to be dramatically reduced.

A second cluster of arguments relates to the degree to which globalization has created the conditions for an ever more intense and activist global or transnational civil society. The physical infrastructure of increased economic interdependence (new systems of communication and transportation) and the extent to which new technologies (satellites, computer networks, etc.) have increased the costs and difficulty for governments of controlling flows of information, has facilitated the diffusion of values, knowledge, and ideas, and enhanced the ability of like-minded groups to organize across national boundaries. Transnational civil society, then, refers to those self-organized intermediary groups that are relatively independent of both public authorities and private economic actors; that are capable of taking collective action in pursuit of their interests or values; and that act across state borders. Globalization writers have laid great emphasis on the roles played by non-governmental organizations, social movements, and multinational corporations, but such activity also includes transnational drug and criminal groups and transnational terrorism. The analytical focus of much of this work has been on transnational networks—for example, knowledge-based networks of economists, lawyers, or scientists; or transnational advocacy networks which act as channels for flows of money and material resources but, more critically, of information and ideas.

A third cluster of arguments suggests that it is institutional enmeshment rather than economic transactions or the ‘reconfiguration of social space’ that has most constrained the state. On this view, states are increasingly rule-takers over a vast array of rules, laws, and norms that are promulgated internationally but which affect almost every aspect of how they organize their societies domestically. Proponents of this view highlight the tremendous growth in the number of international organizations; they point to the vast increase in both the number of international treaties and agreements and the scope and intrusiveness of such agreements; and they suggest that important changes are occurring in the character of the international legal system (the increased pluralism of the process by which new norms and rules emerge; the appearance of more and more ‘islands of supranational governance’ (such as the EU or the WTO); the blurring of municipal, international, and transnational law; and the increased importance of informal, yet norm-governed, governance mechanisms, often built around complex transnational and transgovernmental networks).

The critics attack along a number of fronts. First, they highlight the lack of clear and consistent definitions of globalization and the deep ambiguities as to what ‘globalization theory’ is supposed to involve or explain. Second, they point to the mounting empirical grounds for scepticism, for example: that levels of globalization are not higher or more intense than in earlier periods (especially the period before WW1); that there is no clear evidence of state retreat, of welfare states being cut back because of globalization pressures, of transnational capital standing in automatic opposition to social welfare, or of globalization being the most important factor in explaining levels of inequality in OECD countries. Whilst many of the changes and challenges of globalization are very real, the critics argue that they do not point in a single direction and certainly do not provide secure grounds for accepting the claim that some sort of deep change or transformation is under way. Third, the critics argue that globalization has been driven not by some unstoppable logic of technological innovation, but by specific sets of state policies, backed by specific political coalitions. This suggests that states themselves are not passive players and that the impact of globalization will often depend on national-level political and institutional factors. Equally, even where liberalizing effects can be attributed to globalization, it is not always the case that this implies state retreat—as in the process by which privatization and deregulation have involved re-regulation. Nor does globalization inevitably push governments towards declining state activism. It can, on the contrary, lead to increased pressure on government to provide protection against the economic and social dislocations that arise from increased liberalization and external vulnerability. Finally, the critics remain deeply unconvinced by the arguments for systemic transformation, highlighting the degree to which international institutions are created by states for particular purposes and the evident capacity of powerful states to resist or even abandon such institutions; the continued importance of military power controlled by states and of political boundaries and of national allegiances even in regions of dense economic and societal interdependence; and the very deep resistance of the United States as the global hegemon to contemplate giving up its own sovereignty and the capacity of the United States to both shape and resist the course of globalization.

Andrew Hurrell

Andrew Hurrell “globalization” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.

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48 Balasan ke Pengertian Globalisasi (1)

  1. francis berkata:

    tolong pakai bahasa indonesia dong bingung nih T.T

  2. Upic berkata:

    Aduh….

    Mas pakai bahasa Indonesia donk !
    T-T

  3. NiCCha berkata:

    WahDuch . . . . .
    Cp yang mUdeng pkE inggris gtcU . . . .????
    Terjemahin ya!!!

  4. Chigoe Irahan berkata:

    Pengertian Globalisasi menurut kamus besar bahasa indonesia adalah umum ,menyeluruh atau mendunia.
    well,my hope to you to translate above articles into indonesian language,thanks so much for all

  5. AIK_SHITERU berkata:

    tuh dampak globalisasi pake inggrislahh…;D

  6. princetown berkata:

    aduh sii kang mas ini !!!

    manknya aq CINTA LAURA yang sok english .

    aQ kan cinta INDONESIA

    please dh !!! mank’a sii mas ini tinggal di negara mana sii ???

    sebelah mana’a BOJONG KENYOT ????

  7. princetown berkata:

    mas … bahasa inggrisnya ada yang salah tuh !!!

  8. fadlisastra berkata:

    ehm mantab bos…keep English dah biar tambah good..chayoo ^_^/

  9. fadlisastra berkata:

    pantang meyerah,,biarpun inggris mu masih epetan,,maju terus..pantang mundur..salah is not a big problems,,wkwkwkwk wong org inggris ja ga pernah memper masalahkan salah bahasa selama masih bisa di mengerti and di pahami kok,,yooo wesss Good luck….

  10. fadlisastra berkata:

    Chigoe Irahan “my hope” what the meaning??jgn sotoy deh klo sama Oon…hehe^-^v lebih kepada “I hope” kang Chigoe Irahan,, hehehe yoo wess klo ngutip tulisan org lain kli wajib di kutip boz!!! jauhkan/singkirkan kebiasaan mu Plagiat mulai hari ini “Talk less do more”…

  11. fadlisastra berkata:

    princetown lebih kepada Kenyot Bojong kli ya??wkwkwkwk… yoo wess klo mau di kenyot ta kenyot sini… :”> ta kenyot ubun-ubun mu biar tuambah pinter…hehehe just kiding^-^v

  12. fadlisastra berkata:

    aku cinta Indonesia…
    tapi kenapa hidupku serba kekurangan di Indonesia??
    apa yang salah dan siapa yang salah??
    kenapa yang lain bisa, tapi tidak di Negriku tercinta ini??

    Oh Tuhan, berikan aku kekuatan untuk terus bertahan dengan segala kekuranganku ini, karena tanpa si miskin yang rela hidup serba kekurangan inilah Negri ini dapat bertahan sebagai satu kesatuan, aku yang miskin dan teraniyaya dalam kehidupan yang penuh dengan kepalsuan terpaksa harus tetap sabar dalam menjalani kehidupan di Negri ini menunggu datangnya hari dimana aku dapat merasakan arti kemerdekaan yang sebenar-benarnya tanpa ada yang harus kelaparan dan hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan…
    Bukan aku menuduh, bukan maksudku berprasangka buruk, tapi kenapa banyak sekali orang yang memperebutkan bangku kekuasaan di Negri ini? bukankah menduduki jabatan itu adalah beban yang amat sangat berat? tapi kenapa mereka bahkan rela mengeluarkan dana yang sangat besar hanya untuk sebuah jabatan? apa mereka buta bahwa banyak orang-orang di sekitar mereka harus menahan perih di perut karna tidak sanggup membeli segenggam beras dan sesuap nasi? berikan penglihatan kepada mereka jika mereka Kau butakan Tuhan, agar mereka dapat melihat penderitaan saudara-saudara mereka yang mencari secercah harapan di setiap detik, menit, jam dan hari yang di jalani…
    Hadirkan hari esok yang lebih cerah bagi mereka yang kekurangan, dan bukalah pintu hati mereka yang serba berkecukupan demi Negri Tercinta ini…Merdekalah Indonesiaku demi darah yang telah tumpah dari para pahlawan-pahlawanku, dan tiap tetesan air mata menjadi doa untuk negriku…T_T/

  13. nacho berkata:

    oi fadli sastra, katanya: talk LESS, do more.., tapi kok…?
    (0_0)v peace dolo deh… hehehe..

  14. Editor berkata:

    Rekan-rekan para pengunjung situs ini, kok bingung baca bahasa Inggris, katanya mau globalisasi. Tapi kalau masih sulit silahkan pakai google translator dari english ke Indonesia meski nanti bacanya jadi aneh

  15. ragil berkata:

    bingung…………….!pki bhs indo kenapa????????aq_kn orang taiwan_ho ho ho………….

  16. lazuardi berkata:

    euh…..

  17. hasan rabbani berkata:

    it’s amazing……great…. wonderful…..i hope, that’s article is in indonesian language……

  18. armind berkata:

    globalisasi bkn berarti bhs england……so di Indo in dooonk

  19. putri berkata:

    gux ngertie pke bhasa indonesia lakh….

  20. rara berkata:

    lhach koq pke’ bhz asing ciech????? q g’ bz bca . . . mbo’ eo pke’ bhz indo/1 q kn org indo ali

    • Moderator berkata:

      Sebaiknya kita juga melihat bagaimana pengertian ini dalam bahasa Inggris supaya lebih luas cakrawala kita, terimakasih

      • hk wahyudi berkata:

        Iyah benar, luh luh semua must being studying English, because all of good book are in English, so if you want speaking English well I would like you come to my home, pls come to my home Jl Raya Merdeka I/1 Desa Jurang Menjing, Garum, Blitar. East Java…..Welcome ……………Let us study English well

  21. Adit berkata:

    A third cluster of arguments suggests that it is institutional enmeshment rather than economic transactions or the ‘reconfiguration of social space’ that has most constrained the state. On this view, states are increasingly rule-takers over a vast array of rules, laws, and norms that are promulgated internationally but which affect almost every aspect of how they organize their societies domestically. Proponents of this view highlight the tremendous growth in the number of international organizations; they point to the vast increase in both the number of international treaties and agreements and the scope and intrusiveness of such agreements; and they suggest that important changes are occurring in the character of the international legal system (the increased pluralism of the process by which new norms and rules emerge; the appearance of more and more ‘islands of supranational governance’ (such as the EU or the WTO); the blurring of municipal, international, and transnational law; and the increased importance of informal, yet norm-governed, governance mechanisms, often built around complex transnational and transgovernmental networks).

    The critics attack along a number of fronts. First, they highlight the lack of clear and consistent definitions of globalization and the deep ambiguities as to what ‘globalization theory’ is supposed to involve or explain. Second, they point to the mounting empirical grounds for scepticism, for example: that levels of globalization are not higher or more intense than in earlier periods (especially the period before WW1); that there is no clear evidence of state retreat, of welfare states being cut back because of globalization pressures, of transnational capital standing in automatic opposition to social welfare, or of globalization being the most important factor in explaining levels of inequality in OECD countries. Whilst many of the changes and challenges of globalization are very real, the critics argue that they do not point in a single direction and certainly do not provide secure grounds for accepting the claim that some sort of deep change or transformation is under way. Third, the critics argue that globalization has been driven not by some unstoppable logic of technological innovation, but by specific sets of state policies, backed by specific political coalitions. This suggests that states themselves are not passive players and that the impact of globalization will often depend on national-level political and institutional factors. Equally, even where liberalizing effects can be attributed to globalization, it is not always the case that this implies state retreat—as in the process by which privatization and deregulation have involved re-regulation. Nor does globalization inevitably push governments towards declining state activism. It can, on the contrary, lead to increased pressure on government to provide protection against the economic and social dislocations that arise from increased liberalization and external vulnerability. Finally, the critics remain deeply unconvinced by the arguments for systemic transformation, highlighting the degree to which international institutions are created by states for particular purposes and the evident capacity of powerful states to resist or even abandon such institutions; the continued importance of military power controlled by states and of political boundaries and of national allegiances even in regions of dense economic and societal interdependence; and the very deep resistance of the United States as the global hegemon to contemplate giving up its own sovereignty and the capacity of the United States to both shape and resist the course of globalization.

    Andrew Hurrell

    Andrew Hurrell “globalization” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.

  22. bayu berkata:

    waduh pake bahasa inggris kuang ngeti ne pake bhs inggris……………????????

  23. widiya aj' berkata:

    engglish..??!!!?!?!?!?!?

  24. emmaafifah berkata:

    yang penting globalisasi

  25. rijal berkata:

    saya bisaka bahasa inggris,kalau kamu?

  26. Rony berkata:

    hai apa perbedan garuda dengan kamu?

  27. anis mau berkata:

    i think we must to try understand what the meaning of the globalitation? we don’t hope in bahasa but we try to open the english dictionry to find the difficult way? If we not try from now, when we must to try and to know? we must know becauze study is the moment to know about something is diffficult……….

  28. DEVI NOVIATi berkata:

    janganlah kamu maniru dan mencontoh orang2 asing yang membuat globlisasiada saat ckrang ini

  29. hk wahyudi berkata:

    It is better if the English Article is being translate in Javanese …………well I am sorry, I am wrong, I have advice if all of the article is being translate in bahasa indonesia ……..I think all of us is agree, why…….. beause all of us still study how the way to read English Language well …….

  30. agung berkata:

    bingung nie pake bahasa indonesia dong

  31. febry annisa berkata:

    tolong pake bahasa indonesia donk !!
    jadi gampang buat ngerjain tugas sekolah .!

  32. Salsabila Anindya Balqis berkata:

    Ngarti’inya gimana nii ,, susah banget … pake Bahasa Indonesia donkk…!

  33. anisa berkata:

    Pakai bahasa indonesia aja lah plis!
    ngak ngerti nih!

  34. Moderator berkata:

    Sahabat pengunjung, kalau mau terjemahan praktis pakai saja Google Translate. Silahkan copy and paste ke Google Translate, selamat mencoba

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